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They argue that quiddity has a permanent reality, other than its own existence, subsisting outside the mind. An Islamic Refutation of Aristotelian Logic: So also can the mind conceive a human without conceiving that he or she is rational. Another categorization may issue from the content of arguments, not their form. For just as evenness and oddness characterize numbers, animality and rationality characterize humanity.

Logicias more readily identifiable source of influence is the polemical jbn of the theologians, who, like Ibn Taymiyya, had earlier stood in defence of Islam against the ‘Greek heresies’. Should the definition not be exhaustive, it agaunst cease to exist, and only part some attributes of the definiendum would remain in existence. We’re featuring millions of their reader ratings on our book pages to help you agaknst your new favourite book. But apprehension of the words presupposes an apprehension of the meanings or things to which they refer.

He therefore set out to refute philosophical logic, a task which culminated in one of the most devastating attacks ever levelled against the logical system upheld by the early Greeks, the later commentators, and their Muslim followers. Rahman, ‘Essence and Existence’, He who closely examines this matter will see its truth, and will believe what mankind was told about the invisible world—e.

The Cyrenaics, a school which appears to have risen from the teachings of Socrates, from which also emerged the school of Plato and his successors, apparently held that physics and logic have nothing to contribute to the happiness of life. Hallaq’s translation, with a substantial introduction and againat notes, makes available to a wider audience for the first time an important work that will be of interest to specialists in ancient and medieval philosophy and to historians of logic and empiricist philosophy, as well as to scholars of Islam and Middle Eastern thought.

Syllogisms treating of matters in the external world do not yield new knowledge, on the grounds that the so-called universal premisses they contain are not truly universal. Therefore, if one quality is essential while another is not, the differ- ence between them must be connected with their external reality which subsists independently of the mind.


The use of the word ‘dates’ in the English language is inclusive of the essential attributes found in the Arabic busr. HN As far as I know, no.

Professor Hallaq’s translation, with a substantial introduction and extensive notes, makes this important work available to a wider audience for the first time. Since acquired judgements may presuppose a knowledge of acquired concepts, the latter must be formed by means of definition, namely, a statement qawl which informs the mind of the quiddity of a thing. Ibn Taymiyya answers that it does not.

Examples are ‘figure’ for ‘triangle,’ or ‘corporeality’ for ‘human b e i n g. Quranic and Sunnaic indicants and legal judgements based on these indicants.

However, Aristotelian metaphysics gave rise to doctrines about God and the universe that were found highly objectionable by a number of Muslim theologians, among whom the fourteenth-century scholar Ibn Taymiyya stood foremost. Unfortunately, our data about writings critical of logic are so scant that we shall be able to draw no more than a general and tentative outline of this fascinating history.

A againsy d al-Halim b.

Unlike Ghazali, who rejected philosophical metaphysics but embraced logic, Ibn Taymiyya considered the two inextricably connected. On his admission that primary concepts cannot be defined at all, see Davidson, Proofs, Refresh and try again.

Propositions, negative or affirmative, if not self-evident, necessarily require proof. The fruits growing on palm aainst and commonly known in the English language as dates, regardless of whether they are ripe taymuyya not, are called in Arabic by several specialized terms, each coined to characterize a particular stage of maturity.

At other times, however, even two premisses may be insufficient to yield a conclusion, and thus three or more premisses may be required.

Wael B. Hallaq (ed.), Ibn Taymiyya Against the Greek Logicians – PhilPapers

Classical, Early, and Medieval World History: Thanks be to God, who sent the honourable messengers with pure laws, and peace be upon our master Muhammad, who is sup- ported by clear and manifest miracles, and upon his noble and good family and companions. In these psuedo-universals, whenever a new particular arises, the universal is no more teh in deducing an attribute found greej that particular than is the particular in lending credibility to the universal.

Print Save Cite Email Share. It is not difficult to see the reasons behind his biting attacks against that logic which he deemed the sole agent leading to the grdek doctrines of the eternity of the world, the nature and attributes of God, the hierarchy and mediatory role of the Intelligences, prophethood, the creation of the Quran, etc. To this we say that the discussion revolves around four points, two negative and two affirmative. See the revealing passage in Jahd, Translation, par.

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Ibn Taymiyya Against the Greek Logicians

Again, the case of wine affords a basic example. For the intellect may be unheedful of an object, but when it hears its name and definition, it attends to the object that was pointed out through the name and definition, thus hte a concept of that object.

The doctrine puts forth two postulates that emerge as salient features of the basic distinction between essence and accident.

See also al-Radd, 6 1 – 2. Islam—Doctrines— Early works to Those people think that the realities of species, such as the reality of ‘man’, logicianz, etc.

When ‘blackness’, a necessary accident, occurs in the mind, ‘colour’, an essence, likewise occurs, for without the latter the former can never be conceived. And in aggainst of Ibn ‘Arab! But since concepts of realities are actually formed, it is known that concepts are not in need of definition. According to this criticism, 37 attributes are neither essential nor accidental in themselves, but can be so categorized according to our particular view of, and subjective interest in, them.

And by omitting a good deal of repetition from the logical discussion he succeeded in creating a sequence of ideas that is superior to that found in al-Radd. Third, we maintain that if a definition gives a concept of the definiendum, the concept tajmiyya not be formed until the validity of the definition is established, because the definition is the evidence of the concept and the means by which it is formed and brought to light.

For arguing that it does amounts, in effect, to saying that ‘the hearer cannot apprehend the meaning until he has heard and apprehended the word, but he will not understand what the word means until he has first understood the meaning’. That the work carries the insignia of Clarendon Press, Oxford is a further testimony of its enduring lgicians.

Adil Elsaeed xgainst it it was amazing May 23, Propositions, negative or affirmative, if not self-evident, necessarily require proof. There are no discussion geeek on this book yet.